||Cranio-maxillofacial surgery to restore normal skeletal anatomy in patients with serious trauma to the face can be both complex and time consuming.
But it is generally accepted that careful pre-operative planning leads to a better outcome with a higher degree of function and reduced morbidity and also
reduced time in the operating room. However, todayís surgery planning systems are primitive, relying mostly on the userís ability to plan complex tasks with
a two-dimensional graphical interface. We describe a system for planning the restoration of skeletal anatomy in facial trauma patients using a virtual model
derived from patient-specific CT data. The system combines stereo visualization with six degrees-of-freedom, high-fidelity haptic feedback that enables analysis,
planning, and preoperative testing of alternative solutions for restoring bone fragments to their proper positions. The stereo display provides accurate visual
spatial perception and the haptics system provides intuitive haptic feedback when bone fragments are in contact as well as six degrees-of-freedom attraction
forces for precise bone fragment alignment. A senior surgeon without prior experience of the system received 45 minutes of system training. Following the
training session he completed a virtual reconstruction in 22 minutes of a complex mandibular fracture with an adequately reduced result. Preliminary testing
with one surgeon indicates that our surgery planning system, which combines stereo visualization with sophisticated haptics, has the potential to become a
powerful tool for CMF surgery planning. With little training it allows a surgeon to complete a complex plan in a short amount of time.